What is Diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a condition characterized with high blood sugar due to deficiency or dysfunction of a hormone, which is called insulin that is produced in pancreas and plays a role in regulation of glucose in body. It is the most important cause of renal failure and loss of vision. It has two types: Type 1 and Type 2. In patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, there is almost no insulin in body and these patients should give insulin injections throughout their lives. On the other hand, body produces insulin in Type 2 diabetes mellitus, but blood glucose cannot be regulated due to disorders in glucose metabolism. Oral antidiabetic agents are used in treatment, but insulin shots can be required in subsequent phases.
How is Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosed?
Diagnosis is based on laboratory tests. These tests are fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, HbA1c (mean blood glucose in a period of 3 months) and OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test). After diagnosis is made, differential diagnosis of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is made using various tests.
What is Treatment of Diabetes?
Insulin is a must in treatment of patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus; patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are primarily started on oral antidiabetic drugs that are combined with insulin in subsequent phases.